(1) Mortality in Randomized Trials of Antioxidant Supplements for Primary and Secondary Prevention: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (2007)
- Treatment with beta carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E may increase mortality
(2) Use of antioxidant vita-mins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: Meta-analysis of randomised trials (2003)
- Vitamin E did not provide benefit in mortality compared with control treatment or significantly decrease risk of cardiovascular death or cerebrovascular accident. Beta carotene led to a small but significant increase in all-cause mortality and with a slight increase in cardiovascular death.
(3) Efficacy of Antioxidant Supplementation in Reducing Primary Cancer Incidence and Mortality: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (2008)
- Beta carotene supplementation appeared to increase cancer incidence and cancer mortality among smokers, whereas vitamin E supplementation had no effect. Selenium supplementation might have anticarcinogenic effects in men.
(4) Dietary antioxidants and primary prevention of age related macular degeneration: systematic review and meta-analysis (2007)
- Pooled results from prospective cohort studies indicated that vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, α carotene, β carotene, β cryptoxanthin, and lycopene have little or no effect in preventing AMD.
Increased fruit and vegetable intake in the range commonly consumed is associated with a reduced risk of stroke. Our results provide strong support for the recommendations to consume more than five servings of fruit and vegetables per day, which is likely to cause a major reduction in strokes.
The risk of stroke was decreased by 11% (RR 95% CI: 0.89 [0.85 to 0.93]) for each additional portion per day of fruit, by 5% (RR: 0.95 [0.92 to 0.97]) for fruit and vegetables, and by 3% (RR: 0.97 [0.92 to 1.02]; NS) for vegetables. The association between fruit or fruit and vegetables and stroke was linear, suggesting a dose-response relationship.
(7) Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables is related to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of cohort studies (2007)